HMCo #444s Vaquero I



Construction_Record_Title.jpgName: Vaquero I
Type: Larchmont One-Design Fin Keel
Designed by: NGH
Contract: 1894-5-17
Launch: 1894-6-13
Construction: Wood
LOA: 31' (9.45m)
LWL: 21' (6.40m)
Beam: 6' 2" (1.88m)
Draft: 5' 4" (1.63m)
Construction Class and Number: #442-3
Rig: Gaff Sloop
Sail Area: 600sq ft (55.7sq m)
Keel: FK
Ballast: Lead
Built for: Duryea, Herman B.
Amount: $1,300.00
Last reported: 1908 (aged 14)

Note(s): Vessel information is primarily but not exclusively from the HMCo Construction Record. Supplementary information when not cited here usually appears elsewhere in this record with a complete citation.
"[Sail area 600sq ft.]" (Source: Anon. "The Houri A Fast One." New York Times, June 2, 1894, p. 3.=


Model #6

Model number: 6
Model location: H.M.M. Model Room East Wall

Vessels from this model:
12 built, modeled by NGH
#442s Houri (1894)
#443s Adelaide (1894)
#444s Vaquero I (1894)
#445s Dorothy (1894)
#446s Alerion II (1894)
#447s Celia (1894)
#453s Vaquero II (1895)
#454s Lagofa (1895)
#457s Osprey (1895)
#458s Mist (1895)
#478s [Half-rater for A. J. Drexel] (1896)
#496s Spook (1898)

Original text on model:
"21' WL of 1894 (No. 442, 443, 444, 445, 447 28' 446 ALERION 2 scale)
1895 (28' WL 453 VAQUERO 15" scale ________ 12" scale, 454 LAGODA 19' 6", No. 457 OSPREY 15' 7" WL,
1896 458 27' WL, 478 15'7" WL 1/2 RATER" (Source: Original handwritten annotation on model. Undated.)

Model Description:
"#442 Houri, 21' lwl fin-keel sloop of 1894. Also used for #443 Adelaide, #444 Vaquero, #445 Dorothy, #447 Ceila, and with scale change for #446 Alerion, 28' lwl of 1894, #453 Vaquero II, 26' lwl of 1895, #495 Lagofa, 19'6" lwl of 1895, #457 Osprey, 14'5" lwl of 1895, #458 Mist, 27' lwl of 1895, and #478, 14'5" lwl half-rater of 1896." (Source: Bray, Maynard. 2004.)

Related model(s):
Model 1109 by NGH? (1897?); sail, not built
{?}: Fin Keel???

Note: Vessels that appear in the records as not built, a cancelled contract, a study model, or as a model sailboat are listed but not counted in the list of vessels built from a model.


Nathanael G. Herreshoff

"[1894-05-15] Tue 15: Have order from H. B. Duryea for 21' (#444) [Vaquero I].
[1894-05-22] Tue 22: ... Began planking #444 [Vaquero I].
[1894-06-13] Wed 13: Launched #444 [Vaquero I].
[1894-06-14] Thu 14: ... Tried #444 [Vaquero]. ...
[1894-08-11] Sat 11: Four 21-footers here to overhaul [probably #442s Houri, #443s Adelaide, #444s Vaquero I and #445s Dorothy].
[1894-08-15] Wed 15: Four 21-footers left for Newport [probably #442s Houri, #443s Adelaide, #444s Vaquero I and #445s Dorothy].
[1896-10-01] Thu 1: Hauled out 30-footers Puck, Vaquero [#444s] & Vaquero II [#453s]. ..." (Source: Herreshoff, Nathanael G. Diary, 1894 to 1896. Manuscript (excerpts). Mystic Seaport Museum Collection. Manuscripts Division, call number VFM 1555.)

Other Contemporary Text Source(s)

"... BRISTOL, R.I., May 23 [1894]. --- The Herreshoff shops have started up, after quite a shutdown, and a good force of men is busy in finishing the three twenty-one-footers so far ordered for the Larchmont's new class. Mr. C. Oliver Iselin's boat [Adelaide #443s] is about ready for a trial. She is a fin keel of 21 feet water line, 31 feet over all, 6 1/2 feet beam, and 5 feet draft, with Tobin bronze fin and balance rudder. She will carry the full 600 feet of sail allowed by the class rules and will have about 2,500 pounds of lead on her fin. She is lightly yet strongly built, with oak frames and single planking of white cedar. She has an open cockpit. Her topsides are white, deck bright, and bottom green. The other boats are for F. W. Butler Duncan, Jr. [#442s Houri], and Herman B. Duryea [#444s Vaquero I], and are like Mr. Iselin's. They are well along. ..." (Source: Anon. "The Twenty-One-Footers. Herreshoff Shops Opened to Complete the New Yachts for Larchmont." New York Times, May 24, 1894, p. 3.)

"Yachts Reported. ... NEWPORT, R. I., June 15 [1894]. ... Herreshoff's steam yacht Viva [#102p Viva ex-Gov. Hamilton] left Bristol today for Shelter Island with a new twenty-one-footer [Larchmont One-Design Fin Keel #444s Vaquero I] for Mr. Dwyer [sic, i.e. Duryea] aboard. She will return with W. P. Douglass's steam yacht Aida [#92p Aida ex-Permelia] to have new boilers." (Source: Anon. "Yachts Reported." New York Times, June 16, 1894, p. 3.)

"... Commodore Pryer of the Corinthian-Mosquito fleet offered a handsome silver cup for the 21-footers to race for yesterday, and, incidentally, to give the New-Rochellites a chance to see a good race between this new racing class. The yachtsmen who own these boats appreciated Commodore Pryer's offer so much that eight started in the contest for the cup, and of this number two made their first appearance in a race. ... The cup was won by W. Butler Duncan, Jr.'s, Houri [#442s]. The Vaquero [#444s], handled by Herman Duryea, gave the Houri a hard race, but was beaten by 23 seconds. ... " (Source: Anon. "Houri Won The Pryer Cup. Beat The Vaquero Twenty-Three Seconds Yesterday. " New York Times, July 15, 1894, p. 3.)

"The following sales have been made through the office of Stanley M. Seaman, yacht broker, within the past two weeks: ... Herreshoff special 21-footer Vaquero I. for Dwight W. Tryon, South Dartmouth, Mass., ... [Note: Dwight W. Tryon, the prominent artist from New York, was a summer resident in Padanaram. The next year, in 1903, he would also step aside as vice commodore of the New Beford Yacht Club and then resign from the club until 1916. See: Howland III, Llewellyn. The New Bedford Yacht Club - A History. South Dartmouth, Massachusetts, 2002, p. 76-77, 79, 103.]" (Source: Anon. "Yachting News Notes." Forest and Stream, October 11, 1902, p. 298.)

"... In the Larchmont Yacht Club 21-foot one-design class the racing was particularly interesting, as all four boats took part in about 12 races. This class was built by Herreshoff several years ago, and has raced consistently each season since. Dorothy [#445s] won the class honors for the past season with 6 firsts, 3 seconds, and 1 third, and was disabled twice. Vaquero II [sic, i.e. Vaquero I #444s] took second place with 3 firsts, 4 seconds and 4 thirds. Houri [#442s] beat Adelaide [#443s] for third place, having 3 firsts, 2 seconds and 3 thirds. ..." (Source: Granberry, G. P. "Yacht Racing Association of Long Island Sound." Rudder, May 1905, p. 343.)

"The 'Newport thirties' mentioned under one-design classes, were originally started as a restricted class, but the Herreshoff boats which were all alike proved so much superior to the others that the latter soon dropped out and it became to all intents and purposes simply a one-design class; the same thing applies to the 'Larchmont twenty-ones,' originally a very large class built a few years before the thirties, and four Herreshoff members of which are still racing, but for about the last ten years as one-design boats." (Source: Hoyt, C. Sherman. "The Professional and the Amateur in Yacht Racing." Outing Magazine, September 1907, p. 755.)

"... One of the oldest of the one-design classes, the Larchmont 21-footers of 1894, open fin-keel sloops, had four survivors; Dorothy, Houri, Vaquera and Follette; this class has shown a wonderful vitality, the hulls lasting well and retaining their popularity. ..." (Source: Anon. [Title?] Power Boating, vol. 3, 1907, [p. 33?].)

"No. 28062 --- For Sale --- Larchmont 21-footer Vaquero, designed and built by the Herreshoff Mfg. Co. Won the championship pennant in 1907, and about an average of a dozen prizes a year for the past ten years. Races every Saturday for this class during the yachting season. Full inventory, two suits of sails, one light racing suit like new, one balloon spinnaker, one anchor, two life-preservers; rigging new last season; the boat is in splendid condition; bronze keel and rudder with 2,500 lb lead in keel. Will sell in commission; price reasonable. John McCarthy, Orienta Boat Yards, Mamaroneck, N. Y." (Source: Rudder, March 1909, p. 250.)

"No. 28062 --- For Sale or Exchange --- Larchmont 21-footer Vaquero, winner of Hudson-Fulton Cup at Newburg last October [1909]. Two suits of sails, anchor, life-preservers, standing and running rigging in perfect condition. Would consider an exchange, power or sailboat or auto runabout. Will give or take cash to square the deal. John McCarthy. Orienta Boat Yards, Mamaroneck, N. Y." (Source: Anon. "For Sale." Rudder, March 1910, p. 261.)

"The fin keelers reached their zenith in the so-called Newport thirties. Members of the fashionable Newport colony had a one design class of these boats built from mahogany, thirty feet long on the waterline, in 1896 by the Herreshoff Mfg. Co. and for many years after this class gave excellent racing. The Vaquero III [#468s] owned and sailed by Herman Duryea was the champion in this class.
The year before, in 1895 [sic, i.e. 1894], members of the Larchmont Yacht Club had a class of 21 footers, that were the prototype of [the Newport 30] class, built by the Herreshoffs.
These boats were 21 feet long on the water, 30 feet on deck, 6ft 6ins wide and drew 5ft 3 inches [and] were named Vaquero [#444s], Celia [#447s], Houri [#442s] and Adelaide [#443s]." (Source: Davis, Charles G. "Recollections of Boats and Boatbuilders about New York. 1884 to 1914." Handwritten manuscript in the Collection of Mystic Seaport Museum. No date (1920s), p. 40.)

Other Modern Text Source(s)

"[In the fall of 1899] New Bedford's yachts retired one by one into winter storage. Among them was Dwight W. Tryon's sloop Vaquero, which, wrote the Mercury, 'was hauled out on specially constructed ways on the shore at his summer home [in Padanaram]. The drawbridge opened to allow the yacht to get above the bridge. It was the first time in four years that the draw had been opened.'" (Source: Howland III, Llewellyn. The New Bedford Yacht Club - A History. South Dartmouth, Massachusetts, 2002, p. 64.)



1903 Lloyd's Register of American Yachts (#1753)
Name: Vaquero I
Owner: W. A. Marble; Port: New Bedford, Mass.
Building Material Wood; Type & Rig K[eel] Sloop
LOA 29.6; LWL 21.0; Extr. Beam 6.3; Draught 5.2
Builder Herreshoff; Designer Herreshoff; Built where Bristol, R.I.

1905 Lloyd's Register of American Yachts (#1927)
Name: Vaquero I
Owner: Wm. Stump; Port: Larchmont, N.Y.
Building Material Wood; Type & Rig Fin Sloop
LOA 29.6; LWL 21.0; Extr. Beam 6.3; Draught 5.2
Sailmaker McClellan [Fall River]
Builder Herreshoff Mfg. Co.; Designer N. G. Herreshoff; Built where Bristol, R.I.; Built when 1894

1906 Lloyd's Register of American Yachts (#3020)
Name: Vaquero I
Owner: William Stump, M.D.; Port: Larchmont, N.Y.
Building Material Wood; Type & Rig BF [Bulb Fin], HD [Half Deck], Slp
LOA 29-7; LWL 21-0; Extr. Beam 6-4; Draught 5-3
Sailmaker McClellan [Fall River]
Builder Her. M. Co.; Designer N. G. Herreshoff; Built where Bristol, R.I.; Built when 1893

Source: Various Yacht Lists and Registers. For complete biographical information see the Herreshoff Catalogue Raisonné under Data Sources. Note that this section shows only snapshots in time and should not be considered a provenance, although it can help creating one.


From the 1920 and earlier HMCo Index Cards at the MIT Museum
  • Note: The vessel index cards comprise two sets of a total of some 3200 cards about vessels built by HMCo, with dimensions and information regarding drawings, later or former vessel names, and owners. They were compiled from HMCo's early days until 1920 and added to in later decades, apparently by Hart Nautical curator William A. Baker and his successors. While HMCo seems to have used only one set of index cards, all sorted by name and, where no name was available, by number, later users at MIT apparently divided them into two sets of cards, one sorted by vessel name, the other by vessel number and greatly expanded the number of cards. Original HMCo cards are usually lined and almost always punched with a hole at bottom center while later cards usually have no hole, are unlined, and often carry substantially less information. All cards are held by the Francis Russell Hart Nautical Collections of the MIT Museum in Cambridge, Mass.
From the 1931 HMCo-published Owner's List

Name: Vaquero
Type: J & M
Length: 21'
Owner: Duryea, H. B.

Source: Herreshoff Manufacturing Company. "A Partial List of Herreshoff Clients." In: Herreshoff Manufacturing Company. Herreshoff Yachts. Bristol, Rhode Island, ca. 1931.

From the 1930s L. Francis Herreshoff Index Cards at the Herreshoff Marine Museum
  • Note: The L. Francis Herreshoff index cards comprise a set of some 1200 cards about vessels built by HMCo, with dimensions and / or ownership information. Apparently compiled in the early 1930s, for later HMCo-built boats like the Fishers Island 23s or the Northeast Harbor 30s are not included. Added to in later decades, apparently by L. F. Herreshoff as well as his long-time secretary Muriel Vaughn and others. Also 46 cards of L. F. Herreshoff-designed vessels. The original set of index cards is held by the Herreshoff Marine Museum and permission to display is gratefully acknowledged.
From the 1953 HMCo Owner's List by L. Francis Herreshoff

Name: Vaquero I
Type: 21' fin keeler
Owner: Herman B. Duryea
Year: 1894
Row No.: 711

Source: Herreshoff, L. Francis. "Partial List of Herreshoff-Built Boats." In: Herreshoff, L. Francis. Capt. Nat Herreshoff. The Wizard of Bristol. New York, 1953, p. 325-343.

From the 2000 (ca.) Transcription of the HMCo Construction Record by Vermilya/Bray

Month: May
Day: 17
Year: 1894
E/P/S: S
No.: 0444
Name: Vaquero
LW: 21'
B: 6' 2"
D: 5' 4"
Rig: J & M
Ballast: Lead
Amount: $1300.00
Last Name: Duryea
First Name: H. B.

Source: Vermilya, Peter and Maynard Bray. "Transcription of the HMCo. Construction Record." Unpublished database, ca. 2000.

Note: The transcription of the HMCo Construction Record by Peter Vermilya and Maynard Bray was performed independently (and earlier) than that by Claas van der Linde. A comparison of the two transcriptions can be particularly useful in those many cases where the handwriting in the Construction Record is difficult to decipher.

Link to the Herreshoff Registry

The Herreshoff Registry can be particularly useful for researching the provenance of Herreshoff-built sailing vessels. Permission to link to the Registry is gratefully acknowledged!

Research Note(s)

"LOA 31ft." (Source: Anon. "The Twenty-One-Footers. Herreshoff Shops Opened to Complete the New Yachts for Larchmont." New York Times, May 24, 1894, p. 3.)

"Plan 75-37 shows that the Larchmont 21s carried two different sail plans, one with 500 square feet, the other with 600 square feet." (Source: van der Linde, Claas. April 16, 2013.)

"Built in 27 days (contract to launch; equivalent to $48/day)." (Source: van der Linde, Claas. January 1, 2018.)

Note: Research notes contain information about a vessel that is often random and unedited but has been deemed useful for future research.


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Herreshoff Catalogue Raisonné.
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Citation: HMCo #444s Vaquero I. Herreshoff Catalogue Raisonné.