HMCo #445s Dorothy


Construction_Record_Title.jpgName: Dorothy
Type: Larchmont One-Design Fin Keel
Designed by: NGH
Contract: 1894-5-18
Construction: Wood
LOA: 31' (9.45m)
LWL: 21' (6.40m)
Beam: 6' 2" (1.88m)
Draft: 5' 4" (1.63m)
Construction Class and Number: #442-4
Rig: Gaff Sloop
Sail Area: 600sq ft (55.7sq m)
Keel: FK
Ballast: Lead
Built for: Whitney, H. P.
Amount: $1,300.00
Last reported: 1907 (aged 13)

Note(s): Vessel information is primarily but not exclusively from the HMCo Construction Record. Supplementary information when not cited here usually appears elsewhere in this record with a complete citation.
"[Sail area 600sq ft.]" (Source: Anon. "The Houri A Fast One." New York Times, June 2, 1894, p. 3.=


Model #6

Model number: 6
Model location: H.M.M. Model Room East Wall

Vessels from this model:
12 built, modeled by NGH
#442s Houri (1894)
#443s Adelaide (1894)
#444s Vaquero I (1894)
#445s Dorothy (1894)
#446s Alerion II (1894)
#447s Celia (1894)
#453s Vaquero II (1895)
#454s Lagofa (1895)
#457s Osprey (1895)
#458s Mist (1895)
#478s [Half-rater for A. J. Drexel] (1896)
#496s Spook (1898)

Original text on model:
"21' WL of 1894 (No. 442, 443, 444, 445, 447 28' 446 ALERION 2 scale)
1895 (28' WL 453 VAQUERO 15" scale ________ 12" scale, 454 LAGODA 19' 6", No. 457 OSPREY 15' 7" WL,
1896 458 27' WL, 478 15'7" WL 1/2 RATER" (Source: Original handwritten annotation on model. Undated.)

Model Description:
"#442 Houri, 21' lwl fin-keel sloop of 1894. Also used for #443 Adelaide, #444 Vaquero, #445 Dorothy, #447 Ceila, and with scale change for #446 Alerion, 28' lwl of 1894, #453 Vaquero II, 26' lwl of 1895, #495 Lagofa, 19'6" lwl of 1895, #457 Osprey, 14'5" lwl of 1895, #458 Mist, 27' lwl of 1895, and #478, 14'5" lwl half-rater of 1896." (Source: Bray, Maynard. 2004.)

Related model(s):
Model 1109 by NGH? (1897?); sail, not built
{?}: Fin Keel???

Note: Vessels that appear in the records as not built, a cancelled contract, a study model, or as a model sailboat are listed but not counted in the list of vessels built from a model.


Nathanael G. Herreshoff

"[1894-05-18] Fri 18: Have order for 4th 21-footer [#445s Dorothy] from H. Whitney.
[1894-06-14] Thu 14: ... Turned over #445 [Dorothy]. ...
[1894-08-11] Sat 11: Four 21-footers here to overhaul [probably #442s Houri, #443s Adelaide, #444s Vaquero I and #445s Dorothy].
[1894-08-15] Wed 15: Four 21-footers left for Newport [probably #442s Houri, #443s Adelaide, #444s Vaquero I and #445s Dorothy]." (Source: Herreshoff, Nathanael G. Diary, 1894. Manuscript (excerpts). Mystic Seaport Museum Collection. Manuscripts Division, call number VFM 1555.)

Other Contemporary Text Source(s)

"... Dorothy Ran on Execution Reef.
Commodore Pryer of the Corinthian-Mosquito fleet offered a handsome silver cup for the 21-footers to race for yesterday, and, incidentally, to give the New-Rochellites a chance to see a good race between this new racing class. The yachtsmen who own these boats appreciated Commodore Pryer's offer so much that eight started in the contest for the cup, and of this number two made their first appearance in a race. These were H. P. Whitney's Dorothy [#445s] and Charles A. Gould's Celia [#447s]. Both of these boats are Herreshoff creations. The Dorothy is a mahogany boat, and is as pretty as her name suggests her to be. ... H. P. Whitney had come on from Newport to sail the Dorothy in this race, but, by the crack amateurs on the other boats, he quickly put his boat out of the race by running her on Execution Reef. Mr. C. A. Gould's steamer Neaera pulled her off, apparently uninjured. ... " (Source: Anon. "Houri Won The Pryer Cup. Beat The Vaquero Twenty-Three Seconds Yesterday." New York Times, July 15, 1894, p. 3.)

"NEWPORT, R. I., Aug. 16 [1894]. --- The twenty-one-footers are nearly all ready for the Corinthian Yacht Club's race, which is scheduled tor Saturday. The prize is a silver cup valued at $300, and the race is being managed by Mr. August Belmont. Four of the boats have been at the Herreshoff yards at Bristol for more than a week, having some slight changes made and being thoroughly overhauled.
... The Dorothy [#445s], owned by H. F. Whitney, came down from Bristol to-day. She has been smoothed and varnished, and has had her sails overhauled. W. Butler Duncan, Jr.'s. Houri [#442s] and Herman Duryea's Vaquero [#444s] are still on the ways, being made ready tor the race. Their sails were bagged very much, and they have been recut. ..." (Source: Anon. "Twenty-One-Footers To Race. Four Have Been Overhauled at Herreshoff's for Tomorrow's Event. " New York Times, August 17, 1894, p. 6.)

"... In the Larchmont Yacht Club 21-foot one-design class the racing was particularly interesting, as all four boats took part in about 12 races. This class was built by Herreshoff several years ago, and has raced consistently each season since. Dorothy [#445s] won the class honors for the past season with 6 firsts, 3 seconds, and 1 third, and was disabled twice. Vaquero II [sic, i.e. Vaquero I #444s] took second place with 3 firsts, 4 seconds and 4 thirds. Houri [#442s] beat Adelaide [#443s] for third place, having 3 firsts, 2 seconds and 3 thirds. ..." (Source: Granberry, G. P. "Yacht Racing Association of Long Island Sound." Rudder, May 1905, p. 343.)

"The 'Newport thirties' mentioned under one-design classes, were originally started as a restricted class, but the Herreshoff boats which were all alike proved so much superior to the others that the latter soon dropped out and it became to all intents and purposes simply a one-design class; the same thing applies to the 'Larchmont twenty-ones,' originally a very large class built a few years before the thirties, and four Herreshoff members of which are still racing, but for about the last ten years as one-design boats." (Source: Hoyt, C. Sherman. "The Professional and the Amateur in Yacht Racing." Outing Magazine, September 1907, p. 755.)

"... One of the oldest of the one-design classes, the Larchmont 21-footers of 1894, open fin-keel sloops, had four survivors; Dorothy, Houri, Vaquera and Follette; this class has shown a wonderful vitality, the hulls lasting well and retaining their popularity. ..." (Source: Anon. [Title?] Power Boating, vol. 3, 1907, [p. 33?].)

"The fin keelers reached their zenith in the so-called Newport thirties. Members of the fashionable Newport colony had a one design class of these boats built from mahogany, thirty feet long on the waterline, in 1896 by the Herreshoff Mfg. Co. and for many years after this class gave excellent racing. The Vaquero III [#468s] owned and sailed by Herman Duryea was the champion in this class.
The year before, in 1895 [sic, i.e. 1894], members of the Larchmont Yacht Club had a class of 21 footers, that were the prototype of [the Newport 30] class, built by the Herreshoffs.
These boats were 21 feet long on the water, 30 feet on deck, 6ft 6ins wide and drew 5ft 3 inches [and] were named Vaquero [#444s], Celia [#447s], Houri [#442s] and Adelaide [#443s]." (Source: Davis, Charles G. "Recollections of Boats and Boatbuilders about New York. 1884 to 1914." Handwritten manuscript in the Collection of Mystic Seaport Museum. No date (1920s), p. 40.)


From the 1920 and earlier HMCo Index Cards at the MIT Museum
  • Note: The vessel index cards comprise two sets of a total of some 3200 cards about vessels built by HMCo, with dimensions and information regarding drawings, later or former vessel names, and owners. They were compiled from HMCo's early days until 1920 and added to in later decades, apparently by Hart Nautical curator William A. Baker and his successors. While HMCo seems to have used only one set of index cards, all sorted by name and, where no name was available, by number, later users at MIT apparently divided them into two sets of cards, one sorted by vessel name, the other by vessel number and greatly expanded the number of cards. Original HMCo cards are usually lined and almost always punched with a hole at bottom center while later cards usually have no hole, are unlined, and often carry substantially less information. All cards are held by the Francis Russell Hart Nautical Collections of the MIT Museum in Cambridge, Mass.
From the 1931 HMCo-published Owner's List

Name: Dorothy
Type: J & M
Length: 21'
Owner: Whitney, H. P.

Source: Herreshoff Manufacturing Company. "A Partial List of Herreshoff Clients." In: Herreshoff Manufacturing Company. Herreshoff Yachts. Bristol, Rhode Island, ca. 1931.

From the 1930s L. Francis Herreshoff Index Cards at the Herreshoff Marine Museum
  • Note: The L. Francis Herreshoff index cards comprise a set of some 1200 cards about vessels built by HMCo, with dimensions and / or ownership information. Apparently compiled in the early 1930s, for later HMCo-built boats like the Fishers Island 23s or the Northeast Harbor 30s are not included. Added to in later decades, apparently by L. F. Herreshoff as well as his long-time secretary Muriel Vaughn and others. Also 46 cards of L. F. Herreshoff-designed vessels. The original set of index cards is held by the Herreshoff Marine Museum and permission to display is gratefully acknowledged.
From the 1953 HMCo Owner's List by L. Francis Herreshoff

Name: Dorothy
Type: 21' J & M
Owner: Harry Payne Whitney
Row No.: 168

Source: Herreshoff, L. Francis. "Partial List of Herreshoff-Built Boats." In: Herreshoff, L. Francis. Capt. Nat Herreshoff. The Wizard of Bristol. New York, 1953, p. 325-343.

From the 2000 (ca.) Transcription of the HMCo Construction Record by Vermilya/Bray

Month: May
Day: 18
Year: 1894
E/P/S: S
No.: 0445
Name: Dorothy
LW: 21'
B: 6' 2"
D: 5' 4"
Rig: J & M
Ballast: Lead
Amount: $1300.00
Last Name: Whitney
First Name: H. P.

Source: Vermilya, Peter and Maynard Bray. "Transcription of the HMCo. Construction Record." Unpublished database, ca. 2000.

Note: The transcription of the HMCo Construction Record by Peter Vermilya and Maynard Bray was performed independently (and earlier) than that by Claas van der Linde. A comparison of the two transcriptions can be particularly useful in those many cases where the handwriting in the Construction Record is difficult to decipher.

Link to the Herreshoff Registry

The Herreshoff Registry can be particularly useful for researching the provenance of Herreshoff-built sailing vessels. Permission to link to the Registry is gratefully acknowledged!

Research Note(s)

"LOA 31ft." (Source: Anon. "The Twenty-One-Footers. Herreshoff Shops Opened to Complete the New Yachts for Larchmont." New York Times, May 24, 1894, p. 3.)

"Plan 75-37 shows that the Larchmont 21s carried two different sail plans, one with 500 square feet, the other with 600 square feet." (Source: van der Linde, Claas. April 16, 2013.)

Note: Research notes contain information about a vessel that is often random and unedited but has been deemed useful for future research.


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Herreshoff Catalogue Raisonné.
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Citation: HMCo #445s Dorothy. Herreshoff Catalogue Raisonné.